EM SCOPE

SCOPE

Food Scientists and Technologists

Food Industry

  • Food processing industry is the largest industry in Pakistan
  • Food Technologist works as:
  • Production Manager
  • Quality Assurance
  • Management Department
  • Marketing / Sales Executive

Teaching Institutes

  • University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  • Government College University, Faisalabad
  • The University of Faisalabad
  • PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi
  • University of Sargodha, Sargodha
  • Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
  • Gomal University, D.I. Khan
  • Sindh Agricultural University, Tandojam
  • NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar
  • Karachi University, Karachi
  • University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Rawalakot
  • Karakoram International University, Gilgit

Research Institute

  • Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI)
  • National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE)
  • Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB)
  • National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC)
  • PCSIR Laboratories
  • National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad
  • Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Peshawar
  • Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission
  • Agricultural Research Institutes

Miscellaneous Organizations

  • Punjab Food Authority
  • Pakistan Dairy Development Board
  • Dairy Pakistan
  • SMEDA
  • NGO’s
  • Consultants
  • Food Certification Organizations

Potential Openings

  • Export Promotion Bureue of Pakistan
  • Public Analyst Laboratories
  • Tehsil Management Authorities
  • Provincial Food Departments
  • Ministry of Agriculture
  • Air ports and Sea ports
  • Food Inspector
  • Food Analyst
  • Health Institutions as Dietitian

Health and Nutrition in Pakistan

  1. Pakistan’s population has surged to a staggering 207.8 million, showing an increase of 75.4 million people in 19 years, according to provisional summary results of the 6th Population and Housing Census 2017 that were presented in a meeting of the Council of Common Interests (CCI) on Friday. The population was just over 130 million in 1998, the year when the 5th census had been conducted. This means the country has seen a 57% increase in the population at an annual rate of 2.4%.

According to the summary results, the country’s predominant majority – 132.189 million or 63.6% – still lives in rural areas. This ratio was 65.6% in 1998 when the last headcount was conducted. The urban population stands at 75.58 million, which is roughly 36.4% of the country’s population. In 1998, the share of the urban population was 32.52%.

Sindh is the most urbanised province having 52.02% population in urban areas. Of the total urban population of the province, 68% is concentrated in three major cities – Karachi, Hyderabad and Sukkur.

 

Meanwhile, women’s share in the total population has increased about 1% during the past 19 years. The female population stands at 101.314 million, which is 48.8% of the total headcount, according to the 2017 results. In 1998, the female population ratio was 47.9%.

The male population has increased to 106.449 million or 51.2%. Meanwhile, there are 10,418 transgender (0.05%) in the country.

Punjab

Punjab still remains the most populated province with 110.01 million inhabitants, forming 52.94% of the total population.

The province’s population has increased by 36.4 million in past 19 years which is 49.4% higher than the 1998 statistics. In 1998, Punjab’s share in the total population was 55.62%.

Sindh

Sindh remains the second most populated province with 47.886 million people, which is 23% of the total population.

Sindh’s population has grown by 57.3% or 17.44 million during the past 19 years, but its overall share in the national population remains stagnant.

Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa 

K-P’s population stands at 30.523 million – which is 14.69% of the total population as against 13.4% in 1998.

Its population has grown by 12.78 million or 72% – the second maximum increase. The annual growth rate in K-P stands at 2.89% – the third highest among all the federating units and above the national average.

Balochistan

Balochistan’s population stands at 12.344 million or 5.94% of the total population, according to the 2017 census.During the past 19 years, its population has grown by 5.8 million or 88% – the maximum increase in the population of any federating unit in terms of percentage.

Its share was only 4.96% as per the 1998 census.

ICT

The Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) population stands at 2.0 million, which is 1.2 million higher than the 1998 census. In percentage terms, it has grown by 149%.

FATA

The population of the Federally Administrated Tribal Areas stands at 5.1 million. There has been a 1.8 million increase in the population of the autonomous region, registering 57% increase.

 

  1. Pakistan has an alarmingly high level of malnutrition; 24 percent of the population is undernourished. The most recent estimates by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) state that 37.5 million people in Pakistan are not receiving proper nourishment. The issue is complex and widespread, with deficiencies ranging from protein to iodine, along with other health problems due to insufficient intake of these essential nutrients. But, what are the implications of these nutrient deficiencies for economic growth and development? Using household level estimates, the graph below shows that the macroeconomic costs are considerable in terms of year-in, year-out gross domestic product (GDP) foregone. For example, just three types of malnutrition are responsible for 3-4 percent of GDP loss in Pakistan in any given year, according to the United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) fifth report on the world nutrition situation.

 

Malnutrition in Pakistan is usually associated with poverty and the main causative factors include low consumption of food and foods with low nutritional value. The most common and significant nutrient deficiencies are given below:

Iodine Deficiency

This is a major public health problem in Pakistan and is a threat to the social and economic development of the country. The main factor responsible for iodine deficiency is a low dietary supply of iodine. When iodine requirements are not met, thyroid hormone synthesis is impaired, resulting in hypothyroidism and a series of functional and developmental abnormalities, known as “Iodine Deficiency Disorders”(IDD).

A WHO survey (1993-1994) on iodine status worldwide lists Pakistan as having “severe iodine deficiency” with 135 million people having insufficient iodine intake. Unfortunately, iodized salt consumption in Pakistan is at only 17 percent, according to the National Nutrition Survey, 2001-2002.

Iron Deficiency

It is well-documented that iron deficiency leads to impaired cognitive development and poor performance in school. Iron deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional disorders and has a large impact on economic productivity. Recent estimates of income foregone as a percentage of GDP are 5.2 percent for Pakistan, according to the UN report on world nutrition situation. This depends on the extent of deficiency and the returns to educational attainment in the labour market.

Protein-Energy Malnutrition

This is also very common in Pakistan and leads to a condition called kwashiorkor. Lack of protein can cause growth failure, loss of muscle mass, decreased immunity, and weakening of the heart and respiratory system. A survey by the World Health Organization (WHO) shows that the number of underweight pre-school children (0-5 years of age) in Pakistan is 40 percent. Such children often remain weak and undernourished throughout life.

  1. The most recent estimate by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) state that 37.5 million people in Pakistan are not receiving proper nourishment. About 40% of these under-5 children are underweight and remaining are affected by stunting and micronutrient deficiency symptoms. These deficiencies have resulted in growth retardation, mental disorders and various types of physical disabilities. A large number of infectious diseases such as respiratory and intestinal infections remain responsible for upto 50% of deaths of children under five. About 30% women are suffering from moderate to severe anaemia, 45% have haemoglobin level less than 12 mg/dl and 24% are facing iron deficiency anaemia. Beside micronutrient deficiencies the incidences of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, obesity, hypertension and kidney and liver problems are increasing day by day due to unsafe and poor quality diets. This alarming situation demands to cure diseases with food. Though no formal educational program in dietetics exists in Pakistan, yet advertisements seen for dietetics:
  • Government of Pakistan – Defense Ministry advertised for Dietitian (F4-106/2008-R)
  • Health Department, Government of the Punjab – School Health and Nutrition Supervisor – vacancies in all districts in Punjab
  • Health Department, Government of Sindh
  • Vacancies in all district of Sindh

Realizing the importance of human nutrition in daily life and emergencies like earthquake, drought, famine and man-made disasters, the National Institute of Food Science & Technology has taking an initiative to start a multidisciplinary 4-years degree programme leading to B.S. Human Nutrition and Dietetics first time in Pakistan. The faculty members of HACEM/FEM are teaching courses like Physiology, Anatomy and Clinical Biochemistry and also will provide internship/house job training for the students.

Public Sector

  • Public Health Departments
  • Research & Teaching Institute
  • International Organizations
  • UNICEF
  • UNDP
  • WHO
  • Non-Governmental Organizations
  • Community Development Program

Private Sector

  • Multi-National Companies
  • Independent private practice
  • Food Industry
  • Consultants for Private Companies
  • Consultants in Private Hospitals
  • Airlines and Railways
  • Catering Services
  • Health care centers
  • School Health and Nutrition Supervisors, etc.